Privacy policy

Who we are
The main website address is:
What data we collect and why we collect it
When visitors leave comments on the site, we collect the data shown in the comments form and also the visitor's IP address and browser user agent string to help detect spam.
If you upload images to the site, avoid uploading images with embedded location data (GPS EXIF) included. Site visitors can download and extract any location data from images on the site.
Contact Forms
If you leave a comment on our site, you may choose to save your name, email address and website in cookies. These are for your convenience, so you don't have to fill in your details again when leaving another comment. These cookies will last a year.
If you have an account and log in to this site, we will set a temporary cookie to determine if your browser accepts cookies. This cookie contains no personal data and is discarded when you close your browser.
When you sign in, we will also set various cookies to save your login information and your on-screen display options. Login cookies last two days and screen options cookies last one year. If you select “Remember Me,” your login will persist for two weeks. If you sign out of your account, login cookies will be removed.
If you edit or publish an article, an additional cookie will be saved in your browser. This cookie does not include personal data and simply indicates the post ID you just edited. Expires after 1 day.
Content from other websites
Articles on this site may include embedded content (e.g., videos, images, articles, etc.). Embedded content from other sites behaves the same as if the visitor had visited the other site.
These sites may collect data about you, use cookies, incorporate additional third-party tracking, and monitor your interaction with embedded content, including tracking your interaction with embedded content, if you have an account and are connected to the site.
How long we keep your data
If you leave a comment, the comment and its metadata will be retained indefinitely. This is so that we can automatically recognize and approve any follow-up comments, rather than keeping them in a moderation queue.
For users who register on our site, we also store the personal information they provide in their user profile. All users can view, edit or delete their personal information at any time (except they cannot change their username). Site administrators can also view and edit this information.
What rights do we have over your data
If you have an account on this site or have left comments, you may request to receive an exported file of the personal data we hold about you, including any data you have provided to us. You may also request that you delete any personal data we have about you. This does not include any data that we are required to keep for administrative, legal or security purposes.


Structures on Mars - Housing Unit


The goal of building a structure on Mars is to create a shelter for a team of 4 during 1 year. The housing unit needs to ensure the safety of the team facing the Mars adversities and to ensure that the mental health of astronauts is not compromised. For this purpose, the design of the housing unit on Mars will consist of 3 elements with different objectives and will be built using mainly technology associated with 3D printing:

  • Laboratory and Work Module;
  • Transition Module - House - Work;
  • Housing Module - Leisure.


To ensure an acceptable thermal behavior for the housing module, some thickness values of this module were limited to a minimum value. The recommended thermal comfort characteristics were accepted as recommended average values in Europe. Assuming that, in addition to the thickness of 3cm of polyethylene, a thermal insulation layer of basalt fiber of 3.5 cm will also be placed, it is possible to calculate the minimum thickness of the moisture ABS and Basalt Fiber.


The structural component of the house will be composed by a mix of composite ABS (colorless) polymer and basalt fibers.  That means that, seen from the outside, the housing module will have a color according to the image below.

1 Color of basalt fiber and texture of ABS and basalt fiber moisture


In the structure there are two types of wall, 1-walls that divide the interior from the exterior and 2-walls that function as partitions inside the house. Type 1 walls are constituted, from the inside out, by a layer of polyethylene - 3cm, which can have any color, a layer of insulation of basalt fiber - 3.5 cm and a layer with a moisture of ABS and basalt fiber - 15 cm.

Type 2 walls consist of a 1.75 cm layer of basalt fiber insulation on each side, 1 layer with 15cm of moisture ABS and basalt fiber. The interior can be coated with the desired color.



As mentioned above, the housing unit consists of 3 modules: Housing Module, Laboratory and Transition Module.

The Laboratory and Housing module, are, outwardly, equal, only differ in the arrangement of the partition walls. Each of these modules consists of a cylinder with 14 meters in diameter and 2 meters high. On top of this cylinder is a spherical dome with a maximum height of 6 meters. The displacement module is only a cylinder with a radius of 2.4 meters, cut and lying down, which joins the laboratory module with the housing module. 

Cut Section View Housing Mars

2 Cut and Plan view

Housing Mars Description

Each module has two entrances/exits that connect to isolation divisions. This division allows astronauts to equip/disequip each other when returning/departing from missions to Mars. The housing module has 4 bedrooms, 1 toilet and a common space. There is still no need to have a kitchen, however, it can be implemented in the future without compromising the design of the structure. The housing module has a vertical center garden that occupies the entire height of the module. In addition, it contains two living spaces and a window overlooking Mars, whose dimensions cannot exceed 1.5 meters. On a night of less radiation, astronauts can contemplate the sky of Mars in the safety of their housing modules. The window must be equipped, in the remaining days, by a device that protects residents from radiation.  In the same space there are two bicycles and other sports equipment, which will allow astronauts to maintain their physical forms and relieve stress. The other empty space, below, will serve as leisure space and will have to contain storage.

 Interior View Housing Unit Mars

3 Interior view of the housing module

 The laboratory module, in addition to the isolation rooms, has a toilet and some storage, if the housing module is inoperable. In the rest of the space, it has in its radius a table of 1 meter long that will allow to divide laboratory according to the areas of study of the mission: geology, biology and meteorology. In the center of the module is a meeting table. The laboratory will be equipped with technical equipment dedicated to each area of study. 

 Exterior View Housing Unit

4 Exterior view of the housing module


Mechanical behavior of the housing module


By applying the total loads from the pressure difference in the walls, which separate the interior of the housing and the exterior, we were able to simulate the behavior of the structure on Mars, with the design and materials selected. In the images, it is represented the stress values on the materials.

Mechanical Analysis Mars

As expected, the module presents bigger challenges in the areas without interior walls. When the most severe action is applied, the material used continues to show resistant capacity. We can conclude that the mixture of materials used is able to withstand the most severe actions on Mars.


BANERDT, W. Bruce, et al. Initial results from the InSight mission on Mars. Nature Geoscience, 2020, 1-7.
LE FEUVRE, Mathieu; WIECZOREK, Mark A. Nonuniform cratering of the Moon and a revised crater chronology of the inner Solar System. Icarus, 2011, 214.1: 1-20.
COUGHLIN, Natalie, et al. Development and Mechanical Properties of Basalt Fiber-Reinforced Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene for In-Space Manufacturing Applications. Journal of Composites Science, 2019, 3.3: 89.
WAIT, Taylor. Development of Material for 3D Printed Habitats with Extraplanetary Applications. 2018.
WAN, Lin; WENDNER, Roman; CUSATIS, Gianluca. A novel material for in situ construction on Mars: experiments and numerical simulations. Construction and Building Materials, 2016, 120: 222-231.
Did you like this article? 2
Share this article